What is ursolic acid?
Ursolic acid (also known as Ursol, Prunol, Malol or Apple Peel Extract) is a substance found in many varieties of plants. It comes from a family of chemicals known as the Pentacyclic Triterpenes, which have recently been the subject of a lot of scientific research. Ursolic Acid, a carboxylic acid present in a wide variety of plants in the form of a free acid or an aglycone of triterpene saponines, such as loquat leaf, Rosemary leaf, Uva Ursi /bearberry etc.
It is also known as urson, prunol, micromerol, and malol, is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound which naturally occurs in a large number of vegetarian food, medicinal herbs, and plants. Ursolic acid is a kind of natural triterpenoids, which has the activity of sedating, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, resistance to diabetes, fight ulcer, antitumor, reducing blood fat, enhancing immune. Ursolic acid also has the function of obvious antioxidant and anti-depression, so it is widely used as medicine, cosmetics materials and food emulsifier.
Ursolic acid benefits:
1, Fall hematic
fat and resist arteriosclerosis
2, Fall blood sugar
3, Resistance to liver damage
4, To the influence of the body's immune function
5, Anti-inflammatory effects
How ursolic acid works:
Ursolic acid acts as aninhibitor of the PTP1B enzyme with studies looking at its IC50 value (concentration required to inhibit half of the active enzyme) in the range of 3.6+/-0.2μM, 3.08μM, and 3.9μM; repeatedly demonstrated potency. The PTP1B enzyme in a negative regulator of the insulin receptor (suppressing its effects) and is a therapeutic target for the treatment of high blood glucose in Type II Diabetes. The inhibition of Ursolic acid on PTP1B extends to related enzymes T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), and src homology phosphatase-2 (SHP2) at similar potencies with no effect on LARD1, PTPα, or PTPε.Ursolic acid is about twice as potent as its similarly structured and commonly co-existing molecule, Corosolic Acid (IC50 7.2+/-0.8μM).
Ursolic acid dosage:
There has been no calculation of effective dose in humans, because this compound is has not been studied well enough. Experiments in mice have been successful producing effects at doses ranging between 5-200mg/kg bodyweight per day. Commercially available supplements are dosed within this range.
Ursolic acid precautions:
Ursolic acid has an extremely low rate of intestinal absorption. A bioavailability of 0.6% has been reported when taken orally. This means that a lot of this substance needs to be consumed to have an effect. Mice supplemented with Ursolic Acid have shown infertility due to damage to, and fusion of sperm precursor cells. Reduced sperm motility has also been observed. In addition, there is some concern that Ursolic acid, when administered at effective doses, can cause DNA damage. This is thought to be one of the mechanisms behind the anti-tumour properties of this substance, but the same effects have been observed on healthy cells. Fnally, and importantly, there is no information on the effects of Ursolic acid in humans. Whilst in vitro experiments and trials in mice have shown promise, there is no way to predict effects in without testing this directly.
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